Cooperative Learning: Kagan Structures for English Language Learners.

The teacher no longer is the “sage on the stage” but rather a model and facilitator of learning

Why use this method of teaching?
The 21st century learning skills* require students to build reading, writing, problem-solving and application competencies. The teacher is supposed to teach less content and more skills. Cooperative learning is the perfect teaching methodology to teach students strategies and skills. It also a great model to show students how to apply those skills to study content.

*The 21st century learning skills are often called the 4 C’s: critical thinking, creative thinking, communicating, and collaborating. These skills help students learn, and so they are vital to success in school and beyond.

If you teach your students skills, they will become proficient, adaptable and life-long learners. And this works for ALL SUBJECTS. No matter the content, students who are skilled learners can study any subject, at any time and at any place. Cooperative learning also fosters a student’s ability to work in a team and to regularly reflect on his/her learning.

Groupings
The teacher* assigns students in groups with specific roles and jobs. After team members are organized into these small groups, usually of four people, and receive instruction from their teacher, students within the team cooperate with one another and work through the assignment until each team member successfully understands and completes it. Ultimately the shared goals are accomplished individually by each team member, and collectively by the group as a whole.
Teacher-selected groups have been proven time and again to be the best method of forming teams because it ensures a good mix and avoids friends from working together, which neglects to achieve the goal of improvement of social interactions among students who do not know each other as well.kaganpresentation

Team members.

Team members are responsible for their own individual learning as well as for their teammates learning. Members benefit from the contributions of the individual team members. Groups are heterogeneous are made up of high, medium and low academic achieving students. Team members acquire new skills and knowledge. Rewards are oriented towards individual and group.
Classroom Management
If cooperative learning is not accompanied with an effective classroom management system, serious problems are likely to occur. (Spencer Kagan)

Teachers usually provide verbal information along with worksheets, outlines and study guides during a cooperative learning lesson.
Students who are unfamiliar with the cooperative learning model will need to be taught about the model and be clear on their roles as well as the teacher’s expectations during this type of lesson
Reflection (group processing) is an essential part of the cooperative learning process. By clarifying and describing which actions and decisions were helpful and unhelpful the group continues the learning process and improves each members effectiveness when contributing to a collaborative group.
Researchers
The leading researchers of cooperative learning include Robert Slavin, Roger & David Johnson and Spencer Kagan, all of whom have slightly different approaches and emphases

The research of David and Roger Johnson, provides the foundation for how cooperative learning is structured in most of today’s classrooms. Their research shows that merely because students work in small groups does not mean they are cooperating to ensure their own learning and the learning of all others in the group.
Dr. Slavin suggests that cooperative learning is doubtlessly a great tool for handicapped and disabled students. Cooperative learning encourages these students and molds them to work in a professional environment. Cooperative learning of disabled and normal students is another great way of encourage disabled students. According to Slavin, when disabled and handicapped students work in mainstream and heterogeneous environments, they learn in a more productive and skillful manner.

Spencer Kagan has developed more than 100 structures to incorporate the basic principles of cooperative learning. “We are very clear with teachers that they should make cooperative learning part of any lesson,” Kagan says. “Ours is an integrated approach rather than a replacement approach.”

Kagan Structures
Kagan Structures are easy-to-learn and easy-to-use instructional strategies, ideal for promoting second language learning. In classrooms in which the Kagan Structures are used regularly, students for whom English is a second language learn both English and academic content far more quickly and far more thoroughly than when traditional instructional strategies are used. The Kagan Structures also promote language and content learning far more than does group work.

All of the Kagan Structures are very carefully designed. They are carefully structured to implement four basic principles of cooperative learning, PIESPIES

P  = Positive Interdependence
I  = Individual Accountability
E  = Equal Participation
S  = Simultaneous Interaction

For example, Kagan instructs teachers to use a “Timed Pair Share” structure. In this exercise, the teacher divides the class into pairs of students and poses a question. Within each pair, Student A talks about his or her answer for one minute, then Student B does the same.

The following examples illustrate a few of these instructional methods used:

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“Which Kagan Structures should I learn and use first?”, and “Where do I begin?”

Inside-Outside Circle: In concentric circles, students rotate to face new partners and then answer or discuss teacher questions.
Rally Table: In pairs, students alternate generating written responses or solving problems.
One Stray: On each team, one teammate “strays” from his or her team to a new team to share information.
Rally Robin: In pairs, students alternate generating oral responses.
Rally Coach: Partners take turns, one solving a problem while the other coaches.
Showdown: One teammate reads a question or problem aloud. Students work independently to solve the problem, then show their answers when a teammate calls, “Showdown!” They then celebrate the correct answer or coach to get the correct answer (Kagan 1994).

For more details about Cooperative Learning

On Kagan Institutes, workshops and conferences go to www.T2TUK.co.uk and www.Kaganonline.com

The “Round robin” technique

What is cooperative learning? SlideShare

Cooperative Learning Lessons Starter Kit

The Essential 5: A Starting Point for Kagan Cooperative Learning

FIVE COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES TO DO ON THE FIRST DAY OF SCHOOL

Kagan Structures for English Language Learners

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Improve your English while reading

wsj

 

Improve your English while reading today’s Wall Street Journal. This is the motto of this great new(s) site for students to experience reading one of the world’s top English language newspapers.

Newsmart uses articles from the Wall Street Journal to promote learning English as a second language. It’s a slick site, and it’s free.

Students can select from a collection of news stories gleaned from the WSJ proper. While reading they can also complete mostly multiple choice questions on vocabulary, grammar and reading comprehension, crafted by professional content creators.

Users pick an article, and then there are color-coded portions in it for vocabulary and grammar. Click on it, and you are given a question about the in-context grammar or vocabulary issue. You then accumulate points and badges.

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Newsmart is already a powerful tool for individual study and it has the potential to be a great classroom tool for teachers. There’s nothing simpler than emailing links to articles you’ve assigned for homework, not to mention there is already a scoring metric in place.

For a more extensive and comprehensive review of Newsmark visit: http://eslreview.wordpress.com/tag/newsmart/ by Mark Armstrong

 

 

Do you blog?

Why use blogs?

Engage your students with an authentic medium that takes them out of the classroom (and away from the coursebook) into the real world using English as a medium to communicate.

Motivate your students to produce the best work they can.  Blogs are public and there is a wider audience than just the teacher who will see work.  This motivates everyone to do the best they can.

Collaborate outside the classroom by “connecting” your classroom and use your blog to prepare for and continue work done in the classroom.

Popular Edublog Platforms

There are lots of blogging platforms but here are a few that are popular with teachers:

http://www.blogger.com/ – free, simple and intuitive to use.  Users need a Google account.  See www.teachertrainingvideos.com for video tutorials on how to set up a blog in Blogger.

www.wordpress.com – the best blogging platform used by serious bloggers but some functions are pay for and it’s not as easy and intuitive to use as Blogger.

www.edublogs.org – based on WordPress, but adapted specifically for teachers.  There are free and pay for accounts and this is especially good if you want students to have individual student blogs.

www.kidblog.org – free, simple and basic created by teachers for teachers and suitable for kids, as its name suggests.

If you’re interested in starting a blog for yourself or your students but you’re not sure where to start, here are some ideas and tips to help you get started:

Getting Started Checklist

Here’s a checklist to help you get started:

  • What type of blog do you want?  Teacher, student or class?  Investigate and choose an appropriate platform
  • Do you need/have you got parental permission?  There are specialist educational platforms where students don’t need and email address and will give comfort to parents.
  • Is your blog going to be private or public?  This depends on content.  Public is more authentic and encourages students to be more careful about their work.  Private is safer and may be more acceptable to parents of younger learners.
  • Is the name easy to remember?  If your students can’t find the blog, they won’t use it.
  • How are you going to organise it?  By topic?  By date?  By student?  Spending time planning “labels” or “tags” (the words you use to categorise each post) can save a lot of time later.
  • How are you going to assess student work?  Give clear instructions and use rubrics so students can self-assess before submitting any work.

Quick Start Blogging

Convert coursebook activities into digital activities by getting your students to comment, discuss and collaborate online instead of in the classroom using pen and paper.  And, you don’t need to limit your blogging activities to reading and writing tasks.  You can also free web tools you can get your students do interactive activities.

  • Post useful links to websites.
  • Post important course information (such as exam dates, homework instructions, etc.) on the blog for you and your students.
  • Introduce blogging rules.
  • Drill grammar and vocabulary on the blog – using course book exercises, students write multiple sentences using the target language on the blog instead of in their notebook.  Encourage collaboration.
  • Find and embed online games and quizzes for homework then students comment on them using language for expressing opinion, agreeing and disagreeing, etc.
  • Use other free web tools to create quizzes, flashcards, short animations, etc. that can be used over and again year after year.
  • Use authentic online materials as prompts for speaking and writing tasks.  A nice beginning activity is to get students to embed their favourite Youtube vídeo.
  • Students keep an online diary.  You can organise a class blog by student name to see individual student posts instead of having individual students create their own blogs.
  • Encourage learner autonomy and save your time by getting students to create or find materials they want to use in class and post it on the blog!

Whatever you do in class with pen and paper, can be converted to digital.

Things to Consider

  • Do not allow students to post personal information (such as address and photos, etc.) on the blog.
  • Instructions need to be clear, either on a handout or on the blog.  If students are not sure of what they are doing, they’ll quickly lose interest.
  • Set up “Blogging Rules”.
  • To help students know what is expected of them, and encourage learner autonomy, use rubrics so students can self-assess before “publishing”.  Include “participation” in your assessment rubrics to encourage everyone to complete tasks.
  • Copyright law.  It’s important you and your students have permission to use video, images and texts on the Internet.  See www.creativecommons.org for more information.
  • In class, be prepared for fast finishers.  Get them to help their peers, do an Internet quiz, etc.
  • Have a back up plan.  Technology sometimes fails!

15 Great Web Tools to liven up your blog

There are hundreds of free tools to use with your blog.  Here are some easy tools to get started.  Remember, you don’t have to all of this, get your students to do the work.

www.authorstream.org (convert Powerpoint to flash to embed in your blog)

www.slideshare.net (convert Powerpoint, Word and other documents to embed in your blog)

www.docs.google.com  (collaborative working and embed documents, powerpoints, etc. in blog)

www.livetyping.com (create moving reading texts)

www.wallwisher.com (create an online noticeboard)

www.goanimate.com (create animated cartoons)

www.voki.com (create a speaking avatar)

www.profprofs.com (create online quizzes and embed in your blog)

www.audioboo.com (students complete speaking tasks and post them on the blog)

www.storybird.com (create an online story book)

www.quizlet.com (create online flashcards and embed)

www.superteachertools.com (create online flash games and embed in your blog)

www.photopeach.com (create online movies using images)

www.pimpampum.net/bookr (create online book using Flickr images)

www.classtools.net (create educational games and embed)

 

Extract from Helen Collins

For more ideas and examples of some of the ideas and tools above see:

 http://www.helencollinselt.com/ – examples of other teachers blogs and class blogs

Class blogs – http://www.class.helensclassroomelt.com/

Many thanks to Helen for these excellent ideas and suggestions on blogging!

FrankTudela

“¿Por qué somos torpes con el inglés y lo hablamos tan mal?” o “Per què som maldestres amb l’anglès i en parlem tan malament?”

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He llegit un article a la xarxa i he estat reflexionant tota la setmana sobre ell, l’expose:

L’article és: “Por qué somos torpes con el inglés y lo hablamos tan mal” amb el subtítol de ”LA CULPA NO ES NUESTRA, ES DE LA TELE” podeu trobar-lo clicant ací: http://www.elconfidencial.com/alma-corazon-vida/2013/02/14/por-que-somos-torpes-con-el-ingles-y-lo-hablamos-tan-mal-114883/

Este article es fonamenta en un estudi: “En el Estudio Europeo de Competencia Lingüística (EECL)” ,

do you speak

Diu així…..

“Els espanyols vivim estigmatitzats amb el nostre deficient control de la llengua anglesa, però no és tan greu com sembla, sinó que un conjunt de factors ens han “impedit” aprendre-la de debò”.

En els últims anys comptem amb multitud de recursos per integrar, la llengua “estrangera” con la denominàvem abans, en la nostra societat plurilingüe a la que aspirem. I li diguem “estrangera” perquè no la teníem a casa … La cosa canvia gràcies a les Noves Tecnologies, que ens obri la porta a llocs i cultures que abans eren quasi inabastables .

A veure, anem a analitzar la situació i la raó que ens ha portat a la situació de  “complexe amb el nostre deficient control de la llengua anglesa”:

  • El doblatge es va entendre en el Franquisme com una forma de censura i de enaltiment de la nació espanyola…”. El resultat és que ens hem acostumat al doblatge durant generacions. .. Heu sentit la veu de Homer Simpson, Will Smith o Angelina Jolie?  per exemple, o la veu dels seus “dobladors castellans”? Encara que ja podem conèixer la veu del Bill Gates, del Barack Obama o de l’Oscar Pistorius, en els informatius nacionals la sentim només que a l’inici, ja que després la tradueixen per sobre ….  Conclusió: no entenem anglès perquè sempre hem escoltat la televisió doblada a l’espanyol”. Ara ja no tenim eixa excusa, ja tenim un botonet en el nostre comandament que ens lleva el doblatge i ens col·loca la versió original, fins i tot amb subtítols. Per cert, este botonet deuria de ser més gran i accessible, junt al de volum de veu i  canvi de canal. A propòsit, “si es té un nivell baix d’anglès és millor començar amb subtítols en espanyol, però com s’aprèn de veritat és amb els subtítols en anglès”.
  • El sistema educatiu i l’aprenentatge de llengües …. Els espanyols érem els que més sabíem de gramàtica d’Europa inclús més que molts britànics, però no és el cas de l’ús de la llengua, el qui la parla és el qui la domina, i parlava més ací un adolescent que treballava en l’hostaleria en un estiu en Dènia, Xàbia o Benidorm que durant les classes de “lengua y literatura extrajera” en tota l’etapa de secundaria, per aquell temps: el BUP i COU . Deuríem dedicar-li un Blog sencer a este tema, però no és el moment. Les noves metodologies en el tractament i en l’aprenentatge de llengües, l’ús vehicular de la llengua “estrangera” en àrees no lingüístiques i el tractament integrat de llengua i contingut han desterrat la didàctica desfasada de les llengües que tractaven d’ensenyar un idioma utilitzant de manera vehicular un altre: ensenyar el valencià parlant castellà, per exemple.  Ara s’ensenya i aprèn l’anglès com un llenguatge més juntament amb el castellà o el valencià. Entre estos mètodes està l’anomenat CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) que tracta d’aplicar un aprenentatge més natural de l’idioma, integrant al mateix temps la seva llengua materna a través dels continguts. Els resultats es veuran d’ací a uns anys.

Per a saber més sobre el tractament de llengües,  vos recomane el llibre del nostre amic i pobletà (de la Pobla Llarga)  Vicent Pasqual i Granell “El tractament de les llengües en un model d’educació plurilingüe per al sistema educatiu valencià”. 

  •  Un altre aspecte social que afegir a la nostra carència: “fins ara els espanyols no hem gaudit de grans referents que parlen anglès”: els nostres polítics no dominen idiomes (es dediquen a retallar, a tirar-se les culpes, al tu més i al “sobre” que acaba en les divises a Suïssa), ni els esportistes (heu vist la felicitació nadalenca de Sergio Ramos?) i els nostres pares tampoc …Les noves generacions canviaran tot el panorama lingüístic, social i espere que també el polític, falta ens fa ja …..
  •  Les TIC: Internet permet accedir a gairebé tot: hi ha accés a la premsa estrangera, a escoltar música, a veure videoclips, a realitzar cursos fins i tot gratuïts, a jugar en anglès, a xatejar, a traduir, a llegir, a escriure (aquest blog és una prova..)   … Els canals TDT deixen posar el so en la versió original i afegir subtítols, de vegades fins i tot en anglès. Ràdio Vaughan emet 24h en anglès a diversos nivells des de l’inicial fins avançat. En les capitals ja hi ha “pubs” on s’aprèn l’anglès parlant amb els anglòfils, o els estudiants d’anglès (que som tots), que hi assisteixen a estos llocs no sols per a fer-se un cafè, sinó amb l’objectiu de posar en pràctica l’expressió i comprensió oral.
  • És a dir, que hui en dia ja gaire bé no cap l’excusa que “no ensenyaven bé a l’institut”, o “a la meua època no es sentia l’anglès”. Per descomptat no serà el cas del nostres fills que, “si amb la que esta caient i si no para de caure, i els brots verds no es transformen prompte en fruits” deuran d’eixir a “l’estranger” com els nostres pares i avis, però a diferencia d’ells eixiran formats i sense complexes a l’hora d’utilitzar l’anglès com qualsevol ciutadà  europeu educat i ben format.

“The best way to become acquainted with a subject is to write a book about it”

Frank Tudela 2013

Help your child’s reading.

Reading is happening all the time in a classroom and in school. It is taught in specific literacy lessons, but children are practising and using their ‘reading’ constantly. They are reading instructions, maths language, music language, information books, topics and signs, displays, registers, charts, games and the list goes on. They’re reading on computer, TV and interactive whiteboard screens too.

A child’s ‘reading journey’ begins with ‘learning to read’ and moves on into ‘reading to learn’. This advice will help you to make sense of the different terminology and understand how reading is taught and developed.

I found this website surfing and I think it’s worth it enter and see. This is a free website built to help you with your child’s learningRecommended by 100% of teachers and full of great support for reading, and Maths.

Oxford Owl has over 250 FREE eBooks! With linked activities.

La lectura ocorre tot el temps a l’aula i a l’escola. S’ensenya a les classes de literatura específiques, però els nens estan practicant i utilitzant la seva “lectura” constantment. Llegeixen  les instruccions, llenguatge matemàtic, música, llibres d’informació, temes i senyals, pantalles, registres, cartes, jocs i la llista continua. Estan llegint en les pantalles d’ordinador, televisió i pissarra interactiva també.

“L’aventura de la lectura” comença amb” aprendre a llegir “i passa a” llegir per aprendre “. Aquest consell l’ajudarà a donar sentit a la diferent terminologia i entendre com la lectura s’ensenya i es desenvolupa.

Vaig trobar aquesta web navegant i crec que val la pena entrar i veure. Aquest és un lloc web gratuït dissenyat per ajudar amb l’aprenentatge del seu fill. Recomanat pel 100% pels mestres i ple de grans recursos per a la lectura, i les matemàtiques.

Oxford Owl té més de 250 llibres electrònics gratuïts! Amb activitats vinculades. Oxford Owl

Help your child’s reading with free tips & free ebooks | Oxford Owl.

Content and language integrated learning

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) involves teaching a curricular subject through the medium of a language other than that normally used. The subject can be entirely unrelated to language learning, such as P.E. , Arts & Craft or Sciece lessons being taught in English in a school in Spain. CLIL is taking place and has been found to be effective in all sectors of education from primary through to adult and higher education. Its success has been growing over the past 10 years and continues to do so.

Teachers working with CLIL are specialists in their own discipline rather than traditional language teachers. They are usually fluent speakers of the target language, bilingual or native speakers. In many institutions language teachers work in partnership with other departments to offer CLIL in various subjects. The key issue is that the learner is gaining new knowledge about the ‘non-language’ subject while encountering, using and learning the foreign language. The methodologies and approaches used are often linked to the subject area with the content leading the activities.

Benefits of CLIL

CLIL’s multi-faceted approach can offer a variety of benefits. It:

  • builds intercultural knowledge and understanding
  • develops intercultural communication skills
  • improves language competence and oral communication skills
  • develops multilingual interests and attitudes
  • provides opportunities to study content through different perspectives
  • allows learners more contact with the target language
  • does not require extra teaching hours
  • complements other subjects rather than competes with them
  • diversifies methods and forms of classroom practice
  • increases learners’ motivation and confidence in both the language and the subject being taught