Cooperative Learning: Kagan Structures for English Language Learners.

The teacher no longer is the “sage on the stage” but rather a model and facilitator of learning

Why use this method of teaching?
The 21st century learning skills* require students to build reading, writing, problem-solving and application competencies. The teacher is supposed to teach less content and more skills. Cooperative learning is the perfect teaching methodology to teach students strategies and skills. It also a great model to show students how to apply those skills to study content.

*The 21st century learning skills are often called the 4 C’s: critical thinking, creative thinking, communicating, and collaborating. These skills help students learn, and so they are vital to success in school and beyond.

If you teach your students skills, they will become proficient, adaptable and life-long learners. And this works for ALL SUBJECTS. No matter the content, students who are skilled learners can study any subject, at any time and at any place. Cooperative learning also fosters a student’s ability to work in a team and to regularly reflect on his/her learning.

Groupings
The teacher* assigns students in groups with specific roles and jobs. After team members are organized into these small groups, usually of four people, and receive instruction from their teacher, students within the team cooperate with one another and work through the assignment until each team member successfully understands and completes it. Ultimately the shared goals are accomplished individually by each team member, and collectively by the group as a whole.
Teacher-selected groups have been proven time and again to be the best method of forming teams because it ensures a good mix and avoids friends from working together, which neglects to achieve the goal of improvement of social interactions among students who do not know each other as well.kaganpresentation

Team members.

Team members are responsible for their own individual learning as well as for their teammates learning. Members benefit from the contributions of the individual team members. Groups are heterogeneous are made up of high, medium and low academic achieving students. Team members acquire new skills and knowledge. Rewards are oriented towards individual and group.
Classroom Management
If cooperative learning is not accompanied with an effective classroom management system, serious problems are likely to occur. (Spencer Kagan)

Teachers usually provide verbal information along with worksheets, outlines and study guides during a cooperative learning lesson.
Students who are unfamiliar with the cooperative learning model will need to be taught about the model and be clear on their roles as well as the teacher’s expectations during this type of lesson
Reflection (group processing) is an essential part of the cooperative learning process. By clarifying and describing which actions and decisions were helpful and unhelpful the group continues the learning process and improves each members effectiveness when contributing to a collaborative group.
Researchers
The leading researchers of cooperative learning include Robert Slavin, Roger & David Johnson and Spencer Kagan, all of whom have slightly different approaches and emphases

The research of David and Roger Johnson, provides the foundation for how cooperative learning is structured in most of today’s classrooms. Their research shows that merely because students work in small groups does not mean they are cooperating to ensure their own learning and the learning of all others in the group.
Dr. Slavin suggests that cooperative learning is doubtlessly a great tool for handicapped and disabled students. Cooperative learning encourages these students and molds them to work in a professional environment. Cooperative learning of disabled and normal students is another great way of encourage disabled students. According to Slavin, when disabled and handicapped students work in mainstream and heterogeneous environments, they learn in a more productive and skillful manner.

Spencer Kagan has developed more than 100 structures to incorporate the basic principles of cooperative learning. “We are very clear with teachers that they should make cooperative learning part of any lesson,” Kagan says. “Ours is an integrated approach rather than a replacement approach.”

Kagan Structures
Kagan Structures are easy-to-learn and easy-to-use instructional strategies, ideal for promoting second language learning. In classrooms in which the Kagan Structures are used regularly, students for whom English is a second language learn both English and academic content far more quickly and far more thoroughly than when traditional instructional strategies are used. The Kagan Structures also promote language and content learning far more than does group work.

All of the Kagan Structures are very carefully designed. They are carefully structured to implement four basic principles of cooperative learning, PIESPIES

P  = Positive Interdependence
I  = Individual Accountability
E  = Equal Participation
S  = Simultaneous Interaction

For example, Kagan instructs teachers to use a “Timed Pair Share” structure. In this exercise, the teacher divides the class into pairs of students and poses a question. Within each pair, Student A talks about his or her answer for one minute, then Student B does the same.

The following examples illustrate a few of these instructional methods used:

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

“Which Kagan Structures should I learn and use first?”, and “Where do I begin?”

Inside-Outside Circle: In concentric circles, students rotate to face new partners and then answer or discuss teacher questions.
Rally Table: In pairs, students alternate generating written responses or solving problems.
One Stray: On each team, one teammate “strays” from his or her team to a new team to share information.
Rally Robin: In pairs, students alternate generating oral responses.
Rally Coach: Partners take turns, one solving a problem while the other coaches.
Showdown: One teammate reads a question or problem aloud. Students work independently to solve the problem, then show their answers when a teammate calls, “Showdown!” They then celebrate the correct answer or coach to get the correct answer (Kagan 1994).

For more details about Cooperative Learning

On Kagan Institutes, workshops and conferences go to www.T2TUK.co.uk and www.Kaganonline.com

The “Round robin” technique

What is cooperative learning? SlideShare

Cooperative Learning Lessons Starter Kit

The Essential 5: A Starting Point for Kagan Cooperative Learning

FIVE COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES TO DO ON THE FIRST DAY OF SCHOOL

Kagan Structures for English Language Learners

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Young Learners English (YLE)

Cambridge English: Young Learners, also known as Young  Learners English (YLE), is a series of fun, activity-based English  language tests specially designed for children. Schools all over  the world use these tests to motivate children to learn English and show the progress they are making.

Specially designed for 7–12 year-olds to increase their motivation to learn English. Tests children’s reading, writing, listening and speaking  based on realistic everyday situations.

There are three levels – Starters, Movers and Flyers. All Cambridge English tests are aligned to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).

YLE scale

The Flyers Test is roughly equivalent to the Cambridge English Test: Key (KET), in terms of difficulty but the lexis and contexts covered are suitable for young children.

There are different parts of YLE Starters:

  • Listening 4 parts: 20 questions, approx. 20 minutes
  • Reading and Writing 5 parts: 25 questions,  20 minutes
  • Speaking 5 parts: 3–5 minutes

The overall lenght for Starters Test is about 45 minutes.

If you want to find more informatian about this exam, try this link:

http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/24619-starters-information-for-candidates-en-.pdf

Exam Materials

All materials which relate to this exam:

Exam Handbook

Sample papers for Starters

Sample papers for Flyers and Movers:

Games

Encourage your learners with fun vocabulary practice using these interactive games.

Activities

Extend and consolidate your lessons with this selection of interactive activities.

 

“¿Por qué somos torpes con el inglés y lo hablamos tan mal?” o “Per què som maldestres amb l’anglès i en parlem tan malament?”

images

He llegit un article a la xarxa i he estat reflexionant tota la setmana sobre ell, l’expose:

L’article és: “Por qué somos torpes con el inglés y lo hablamos tan mal” amb el subtítol de ”LA CULPA NO ES NUESTRA, ES DE LA TELE” podeu trobar-lo clicant ací: http://www.elconfidencial.com/alma-corazon-vida/2013/02/14/por-que-somos-torpes-con-el-ingles-y-lo-hablamos-tan-mal-114883/

Este article es fonamenta en un estudi: “En el Estudio Europeo de Competencia Lingüística (EECL)” ,

do you speak

Diu així…..

“Els espanyols vivim estigmatitzats amb el nostre deficient control de la llengua anglesa, però no és tan greu com sembla, sinó que un conjunt de factors ens han “impedit” aprendre-la de debò”.

En els últims anys comptem amb multitud de recursos per integrar, la llengua “estrangera” con la denominàvem abans, en la nostra societat plurilingüe a la que aspirem. I li diguem “estrangera” perquè no la teníem a casa … La cosa canvia gràcies a les Noves Tecnologies, que ens obri la porta a llocs i cultures que abans eren quasi inabastables .

A veure, anem a analitzar la situació i la raó que ens ha portat a la situació de  “complexe amb el nostre deficient control de la llengua anglesa”:

  • El doblatge es va entendre en el Franquisme com una forma de censura i de enaltiment de la nació espanyola…”. El resultat és que ens hem acostumat al doblatge durant generacions. .. Heu sentit la veu de Homer Simpson, Will Smith o Angelina Jolie?  per exemple, o la veu dels seus “dobladors castellans”? Encara que ja podem conèixer la veu del Bill Gates, del Barack Obama o de l’Oscar Pistorius, en els informatius nacionals la sentim només que a l’inici, ja que després la tradueixen per sobre ….  Conclusió: no entenem anglès perquè sempre hem escoltat la televisió doblada a l’espanyol”. Ara ja no tenim eixa excusa, ja tenim un botonet en el nostre comandament que ens lleva el doblatge i ens col·loca la versió original, fins i tot amb subtítols. Per cert, este botonet deuria de ser més gran i accessible, junt al de volum de veu i  canvi de canal. A propòsit, “si es té un nivell baix d’anglès és millor començar amb subtítols en espanyol, però com s’aprèn de veritat és amb els subtítols en anglès”.
  • El sistema educatiu i l’aprenentatge de llengües …. Els espanyols érem els que més sabíem de gramàtica d’Europa inclús més que molts britànics, però no és el cas de l’ús de la llengua, el qui la parla és el qui la domina, i parlava més ací un adolescent que treballava en l’hostaleria en un estiu en Dènia, Xàbia o Benidorm que durant les classes de “lengua y literatura extrajera” en tota l’etapa de secundaria, per aquell temps: el BUP i COU . Deuríem dedicar-li un Blog sencer a este tema, però no és el moment. Les noves metodologies en el tractament i en l’aprenentatge de llengües, l’ús vehicular de la llengua “estrangera” en àrees no lingüístiques i el tractament integrat de llengua i contingut han desterrat la didàctica desfasada de les llengües que tractaven d’ensenyar un idioma utilitzant de manera vehicular un altre: ensenyar el valencià parlant castellà, per exemple.  Ara s’ensenya i aprèn l’anglès com un llenguatge més juntament amb el castellà o el valencià. Entre estos mètodes està l’anomenat CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) que tracta d’aplicar un aprenentatge més natural de l’idioma, integrant al mateix temps la seva llengua materna a través dels continguts. Els resultats es veuran d’ací a uns anys.

Per a saber més sobre el tractament de llengües,  vos recomane el llibre del nostre amic i pobletà (de la Pobla Llarga)  Vicent Pasqual i Granell “El tractament de les llengües en un model d’educació plurilingüe per al sistema educatiu valencià”. 

  •  Un altre aspecte social que afegir a la nostra carència: “fins ara els espanyols no hem gaudit de grans referents que parlen anglès”: els nostres polítics no dominen idiomes (es dediquen a retallar, a tirar-se les culpes, al tu més i al “sobre” que acaba en les divises a Suïssa), ni els esportistes (heu vist la felicitació nadalenca de Sergio Ramos?) i els nostres pares tampoc …Les noves generacions canviaran tot el panorama lingüístic, social i espere que també el polític, falta ens fa ja …..
  •  Les TIC: Internet permet accedir a gairebé tot: hi ha accés a la premsa estrangera, a escoltar música, a veure videoclips, a realitzar cursos fins i tot gratuïts, a jugar en anglès, a xatejar, a traduir, a llegir, a escriure (aquest blog és una prova..)   … Els canals TDT deixen posar el so en la versió original i afegir subtítols, de vegades fins i tot en anglès. Ràdio Vaughan emet 24h en anglès a diversos nivells des de l’inicial fins avançat. En les capitals ja hi ha “pubs” on s’aprèn l’anglès parlant amb els anglòfils, o els estudiants d’anglès (que som tots), que hi assisteixen a estos llocs no sols per a fer-se un cafè, sinó amb l’objectiu de posar en pràctica l’expressió i comprensió oral.
  • És a dir, que hui en dia ja gaire bé no cap l’excusa que “no ensenyaven bé a l’institut”, o “a la meua època no es sentia l’anglès”. Per descomptat no serà el cas del nostres fills que, “si amb la que esta caient i si no para de caure, i els brots verds no es transformen prompte en fruits” deuran d’eixir a “l’estranger” com els nostres pares i avis, però a diferencia d’ells eixiran formats i sense complexes a l’hora d’utilitzar l’anglès com qualsevol ciutadà  europeu educat i ben format.

“The best way to become acquainted with a subject is to write a book about it”

Frank Tudela 2013

The Common European Framework

As teachers, we need to know a way to specify what our learners are able to do at certain levels, how these levels can guide our teaching and the way we select course books and resources. In short, we need a common language by which we can describe language learning, teaching, and assessment.

In most countries there is general agreement that language learning can be organized into three levels: basic/beginner, intermediate, and advanced.

But, what you mean by intermediate. What is an intermediate level? What does intermediate mean to you as a teacher and to your learners? What does intermediate refer to? To the amount of vocabulary, to the grammar items, to how a learner communicates or at what level understands. Consider how you would describe to a learner what you mean by intermediate. How can we assess a learner’s achievement at an intermediate level if we don’t define exactly what we mean by intermediate? …

Furthermore, levels can mean different things among different institutions and in different countries. Can we directly compare the proficiency level of an advanced English student to that of an advanced Spanish student? …

How do we establish international standards for learning, teaching, and assessment for all modern European languages?

The answers to all this questions is the CEF. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages(CEF): Learning, Teaching, Assessment published by the Council of Europe (Language Policy Division ) in 2001.

The Common European Framework describes what a learner can do at six specific levels: from A1 to C2:

  • Basic User (A1 and A2)
  • Independent User (B1and B2)
  • Proficient User (C1 and C2)

For each level, the full CEF document complements this by describing in depth:

  • Competencies necessary for effective communication.
  • Skills and knowledge related to language learning and competencies.
  • Situations (people, place, time, organization, etc.) and contexts (study, work, social, tourism, etc.) in which communication takes place.

Common reference levels are based on statements of what a learner can do at each level. The Global Scale is based on a set of statements that describe what a learner can do. The “can do” statements are always positive: they describe what a learner is able to do, not what a learner cannot do or does wrong.

The following table describes each of the six levels of the Global Scale.

levels-chart

However, the CEF is more than the Global Scale. The CEF goes further by breaking down the

Global Scale into more descriptive scales covering three areas of communication:

  • Understanding (Listening and Reading)
  • Speaking (Spoken Interaction and Spoken Production)
  • Writing

The CEF deliberately does not refer to grammar or structures. It is designed to describe how language users communicate and how they understand written and spoken texts. As it is used to describe and compare European languages, we cannot hope to provide a detailed list of grammar structures.

In its own words, the CEF “provides a common basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum guidelines, examinations, textbooks, etc.” (CEF: 2001: 1)

Links:

Niveles de competencia lingüística

CEFR (pdf)

External links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_European_Framework_of_Reference_for_Languages

http://www.cambridgeesol.org/about/standards/can-do.html

http://www.examenglish.com/CEFR/cefr.php

Jimenez, Carlos César (2011). El Marco Europeo Común de Referencia para las Lenguas y la comprensión teórica del conocimiento del lenguaje: exploración de una normatividad flexible para emprender acciones educativas

Ya llega la Navidad!

Ya llega la Navidad! Y con ella, las vacaciones: una excelente oportunidad para practicar inglés con los/as más pequeños/as de la casa. Aquí tenéis algunos consejos y sugerencias:

1. ¡Siempre en positivo! Vuestra actitud positiva hacía el inglés se verá reflejada en vuestros/as hijos/as, lo que provocará una mayor predisposición al aprendizaje.

2. Los inicios suelen ser difíciles. Es fundamental ayudar y animar  a los/as peques en sus primeros intentos para hablar en inglés. El refuerzo positivo potenciará su perseverancia.

3. ¿Repetimos película? Vale, pero esta vez ponemos el DVD en versión original.

4. ¡Música maestro! Podéis encontrar canciones en el CD del libro de clase, en la red… Da igual si son originales o adaptadas. Lo importante es que atraigan la atención del/de la niño/a.

5. Aprovechamos el paseo. Da lo mismo ir por la calle o por un centro comercial, si ya sabe leer, es ideal que identifique todas las palabras que pueda en inglés.

6. ¡Pero que listo/a eres! Recordad el vocabulario que ha estado aprendiendo en la clase de inglés. Por ejemplo, preguntadle por el color de un objeto. Da gusto ver sus caritas cuando les decís: “Very good!” o “Well done!”.

7. Os recomendamos algunas webs en inglés para que podáis practicar juntos:

The Color

Imágenes relacionadas con la Navidad para colorear online. También existe la opción de imprimir. http://www.thecolor.com/Category/Coloring/Christmas.aspx

Colorear Santa Online

http://www.primarygames.com/holidays/christmas/games/santa-online-coloring/

Canciones para repasar vocabulario básico

Everybody Up: Canción con letra fácil y ‘bailecito’.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lSDiAiEHgY

Otra canción fácil para practicar los números:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3zaC5onBvM

Canción con la letra en pantalla para practicar los días de la semana- ideal para una divertida sesión de karaoke:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gskPnAdnIUs&list=UUJg43fASYmwa-pLlMQITVnw&index=3&feature=plcp

Canciones y Cuentos en Inglés

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1513DAEC94A8350A&feature=plcp

BBC para niños/as

http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbbc/ (videos, juegos, canciones y cuentos)

Imágenes de Navidad

Selección de imágenes relacionadas con la Navidad para imprimir y colorear. Es ideal para practicar los colores o los números en inglés. Por ejemplo: ¿Cuántos regalos hay debajo del árbol?http://www.primarygames.com/holidays/christmas/color.htm

Oxford Owl

http://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/

Es una página completamente en inglés, que trabaja la lectoescritura y las matemáticas. Incluye también e-books gratis con el audio de las actividades. Todo el site está ideado para facilitar la labor de los/as padres/madres a la hora de practicar el inglés con los/as pequeños/as en estas materias. Ver el post dedicado a Oxfordowl.

Y sobretodo los Ejercicios personalizados para cada alumno/a de las clases de Inglés del del Colegio Santa Ana:

English Exercises 

Tan sólo nos queda deciros una cosa más:

We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

Un saludo,

Frank Tudela

Santa Ana’s English Teacher

Help your child’s reading.

Reading is happening all the time in a classroom and in school. It is taught in specific literacy lessons, but children are practising and using their ‘reading’ constantly. They are reading instructions, maths language, music language, information books, topics and signs, displays, registers, charts, games and the list goes on. They’re reading on computer, TV and interactive whiteboard screens too.

A child’s ‘reading journey’ begins with ‘learning to read’ and moves on into ‘reading to learn’. This advice will help you to make sense of the different terminology and understand how reading is taught and developed.

I found this website surfing and I think it’s worth it enter and see. This is a free website built to help you with your child’s learningRecommended by 100% of teachers and full of great support for reading, and Maths.

Oxford Owl has over 250 FREE eBooks! With linked activities.

La lectura ocorre tot el temps a l’aula i a l’escola. S’ensenya a les classes de literatura específiques, però els nens estan practicant i utilitzant la seva “lectura” constantment. Llegeixen  les instruccions, llenguatge matemàtic, música, llibres d’informació, temes i senyals, pantalles, registres, cartes, jocs i la llista continua. Estan llegint en les pantalles d’ordinador, televisió i pissarra interactiva també.

“L’aventura de la lectura” comença amb” aprendre a llegir “i passa a” llegir per aprendre “. Aquest consell l’ajudarà a donar sentit a la diferent terminologia i entendre com la lectura s’ensenya i es desenvolupa.

Vaig trobar aquesta web navegant i crec que val la pena entrar i veure. Aquest és un lloc web gratuït dissenyat per ajudar amb l’aprenentatge del seu fill. Recomanat pel 100% pels mestres i ple de grans recursos per a la lectura, i les matemàtiques.

Oxford Owl té més de 250 llibres electrònics gratuïts! Amb activitats vinculades. Oxford Owl

Help your child’s reading with free tips & free ebooks | Oxford Owl.

Is there a future for the paper dictionary? …

Macmillan Dictionaries will no longer appear as physical books. The final copies are rolling off the presses at this very moment, and from next year, Macmillan Dictionary will be available only online.

 Is there a future for the paper dictionary or, like the encyclopedia, will it soon become a 20th century relic? Beyond this, will dictionaries in any form survive, as digital natives increasingly use the Web as their primary source of lexical information?

What is your answer? …. (clue: look what happened to encyclopedias)

The CD-ROM dictionary was first produced about twenty years ago, followed by other handheld devices. But the Web has now taken a more central role, generating significant ‘external’ effects and creating a completely new, and still emerging, paradigm.

Liberated from space constraints and taking advantage of multimedia and hyperlinking, the electronic dictionary’s range is infinite, affording the possibility of a multilayered approach to defining words that demonstrates to the user the many ways in which it can be encoded. Online dictionaries, replete with pronunciation aids, sound effects and games, have the capacity to offer the user a far more holistic experience than their paper counterparts. Furthermore, online dictionaries can be effortlessly current, staying really up to date (not once in 5 years o more)

What do we lose? …..

  • Users Dictionary as ‘authority.
  • Too much information? Needs careful management.

The future is already here … but is it for everybody?

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/top-stories/macmillan-phase-out-printed-dictionaries

www.macmillandictionaryblog.com

“Who needs dictionaries?” 

 

El 63% del alumnado español no comprende el inglés oral al finalizar la ESO.

El 63% del alumnado español no comprende el inglés oral al finalizar la Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria, según el Estudio Europeo de Competencia Lingüística (EECL), en el que han participado 14 países europeos. En España han realizado la prueba 7.651 alumnos de 4º ESO de 359 centros -Andalucía, Navarra y Canarias han ampliado la muestra para obtener resultados propios-.

El trabajo, presentados por el director general Evaluación y Cooperación Territorial, Alfonso González, y el director del Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa, Isamael Sanz, sitúa a España en el puesto noveno, junto a Polonia, Portugal, y por delante de Francia e Inglaterra, pues esta última tiene como primer idioma el francés.

Los resultados del estudio se han dado como porcentajes de alumnos que alcanzan cada uno de los niveles del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia de las Lenguas. Así, en comprensión lectora, el 31% no alcanza el nivel A1, es decir, que no entiende un lenguaje sencillo, ni siquiera con ayuda; el 33%, sí llega a ese nivel; y el 13% sólo entiende expresiones sencillas para comunicarse sobre temas cotidianos (A2).

Por el contrario, alcanzan un nivel alto en comprensión oral el 24% de los estudiantes, la mitad puede manejarse con temas que le son familiares o en los que tiene un interés personal (B1) y la otra mitad lo hace de forma clara y eficaz en temas concretos y abstractos (B2).

En cuanto a la comprensión lectora, los alumnos españoles obtienen mejores resultados, aunque siguen siendo insuficientes, ya que más de la mitad, es decir, un 58%, no entiende lo que lee en inglés (Pre A1 y A1), el 12% sólo un lenguaje sencillo (A2). El 30% de alumnos restante alcanza los niveles B1 y B2 en este ámbito, con el 12% y el 18%, respectivamente.

En expresión escrita, el 14% no sabe usar un lenguaje muy sencillo (PreA1); el 31% puede usarlo, pero siempre con ayuda (A1); el 26% escribe utilizando un lenguaje sencillo para manejarse sobre temas cotidianos (A2); el 20% ya lo hace sobre asuntos que para él tienen un interés o le resultan familiares (B1); y sólo el 9% escribe de forma clara (B2).

Inglés y francés

España presenta unos datos poco entusiastas en el dominio del inglés ya que sólo un 27% de los jóvenes encuestados es competente. No ocurre lo mismo con el francés, donde el porcentaje sube al 28%.

Internet

Uno de los cambios más llamativos desde 2005 es que internet ha ampliado las competencias ‘pasivas’ de comprensión oral y lectora. El número que utiliza regularmente lenguas extranjeras en internet, gracias a las redes sociales, ha pasado del 26% al 36%.

EXTRACT FROM “EL MUNDO

Content and language integrated learning

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) involves teaching a curricular subject through the medium of a language other than that normally used. The subject can be entirely unrelated to language learning, such as P.E. , Arts & Craft or Sciece lessons being taught in English in a school in Spain. CLIL is taking place and has been found to be effective in all sectors of education from primary through to adult and higher education. Its success has been growing over the past 10 years and continues to do so.

Teachers working with CLIL are specialists in their own discipline rather than traditional language teachers. They are usually fluent speakers of the target language, bilingual or native speakers. In many institutions language teachers work in partnership with other departments to offer CLIL in various subjects. The key issue is that the learner is gaining new knowledge about the ‘non-language’ subject while encountering, using and learning the foreign language. The methodologies and approaches used are often linked to the subject area with the content leading the activities.

Benefits of CLIL

CLIL’s multi-faceted approach can offer a variety of benefits. It:

  • builds intercultural knowledge and understanding
  • develops intercultural communication skills
  • improves language competence and oral communication skills
  • develops multilingual interests and attitudes
  • provides opportunities to study content through different perspectives
  • allows learners more contact with the target language
  • does not require extra teaching hours
  • complements other subjects rather than competes with them
  • diversifies methods and forms of classroom practice
  • increases learners’ motivation and confidence in both the language and the subject being taught

Niveles de competencia lingüística

El Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas (MCER) establece una escala de 6 niveles comunes de referencia para la organización del aprendizaje de lenguas y su reconocimiento público.

En la edición española del Marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas las lenguas (MCER) traducida por el Instituto Cervantes, se dividen de la siguiente forma:

NIVEL SUBNIVEL DESCRIPCION
A = Usuario Básico A1 (Plataforma) El usuario básico: A1 y A2. La persona capaz de comunicarse, en situaciones muy cotidianas, con expresiones de uso muy frecuente y utilizando vocabulario y gramática básica.
A2 (Acceso)
B = Usuario Independiente. B1 (Umbral) El usuario independiente: B1. Es capaz de desenvolverse en la mayor parte de las situaciones que pueden surgir durante un viaje por zonas donde se utiliza la lengua objeto de estudio.
B2 (Avanzado) El usuario independiente: B2. Puede relacionarse con hablantes nativos con un grado suficiente de fluidez y naturalidad, de modo que la comunicación se realice sin esfuerzo por parte de los interlocutores.
C = Usuario Competente C1 (Dominio Operativo Eficaz) El usuario competente: C1. “Dominio operativo adecuado”. Representa un nivel avanzado de competencia apropiado para tareas más complejas de trabajo y estudio. (Generalmente este nivel lo alcanzan personas con estudios académicos medios o superiores en su lengua materna)
C2 (Maestría) El usuario competente: C2. Aunque el nivel C2 se ha denominado «Maestría», no implica una competencia de hablante nativo o próxima a la de un nativo. Lo que pretende es caracterizar el grado de precisión, propiedad y facilidad en el uso de la lengua que tipifica el habla de los alumnos brillantes.